modeling of a printing facility

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Dear fellow questers
Hope you are doing fine
I am simulating a facility plant dedicated for printing, and trying
to get LEED certification for it
The plant is only 3 stories height with storage area,offices area and
manufacturing area;
First; I am not sure if ASHRAE 90.1 applies to this project,because it
is only 3 stories height and it is industrial;if not, what standard
shall be followed in this case in order to get the baseline?
Second; about the process loads in the energy modeling issue: do we
consider the printing machines as part of the process loads?the
printing machines are running 24 hours/7 days with a large power
consumption, which means that the LEED certification cannot be
Hope you can provide me with some guidance
Thanks anyway

Haissam Al Mahmoud,BME,LEED AP

haissam mahmoud's picture
Joined: 2011-09-30
Reputation: 0

Hi Haissam - it's been awhile!

I'm not sure about LEED, but I can answer on behalf of 90.1!

90.1 starts off with a handy scope chapter that partially answers your
first question and directly answers your second.

I'd suggest reading all of section 2 "Scope," (less than half a page),
but of particular note:
"2.3) The provisions of this standard do not apply to: (c) equipment
and portions of building systems that use energy primarily to provide
for industrial, manufacturing, or commercial processes."

I believe this pretty directly tells you 90.1 does not apply to the
portion of your building which is intended as an industrial printing
facility. The office/storage areas however may certainly be within
90.1's scope. Further reading of Section 2 reveals the number of
stories in your building has no bearing on whether 90.1 applies unless
it's a residential/multi-family structure.

The above Section 2 is identical in 90.1-2004 and 2007, by the way...
not sure of earlier years.

I would think logically (which I know may mean little in the face of
USGBC) you would be able to go along with a LEED submittal/approval
process while carefully defining that area of the building and equipment
which is exempt from the 90.1 standard, as defined by 90.1. I'd love to
hear the experience of others who've been in this situation!


Nick-Caton's picture
Joined: 2011-09-30
Reputation: 805

For LEED projects all process energy must be included in both the baseline
and proposed building. Yes, if the building is 86% process then you would
have to run the building without HVAC or lights to achieve LEED
certification. This is an ongoing issue with process intensive buildings
such as industrial or data centers. The LEED program was originally
designed for commercial offices so buildings of this type are difficult to
certify. You could possibly document the energy use of the equipment and
somehow demonstrate that the equipment being used is more efficient than
the typical industry standard. However, this would take significant
documentation and knowledge of the process energy.

Also, the 3 story limit is for residential spaces. So a two-story office
would still qualify under ASHRAE 90.1.

Thomas Serra's picture
Joined: 2011-09-30
Reputation: 0

There is nothing re the process load that would stop you from certifying the
building. Appendix G tells you to estimate the process load and have it the
same in both the baseline and proposed so it doesn't matter what that load
is. It doesn't expect you to demonstrate energy efficiency for process loads
unless you think you can.
Model the building as if the process load was not there and then add your
estimate to both baseline and proposed. Don't forget it's not LEED that is
making the rules here - it's ASHRAE Appendix G.

Gerard Hazel

Gerard Hazel's picture
Joined: 2011-09-30
Reputation: 0

I agree that the process energy doesn't stop you from certifying the
building. I think the concern is that an industrial facility's energy usage
would be dominated by the process energy. Standard energy efficiency
measures such as lighting and space cooling would not produce the necessary
total building energy cost savings of 14% required for LEED v 2.2 buildings.
Process energy cannot be touched without exceptional calculation per LEED
and ASHRAE 90.1. I also agree that you should model the building, and then
use reasonable assumptions for the process energy.

Unfortunately if this is a LEED project then it will be subject to LEED
review. In the end ASHRAE is law, but some review teams misread or
misinterpret the intent of ASHRAE 90.1. Some LEED guidance overrides the
90.1 guidelines so you need to consider both.

You should also review past CIRs regarding high process load buildings.

Thomas Serra

Thomas Serra's picture
Joined: 2011-09-30
Reputation: 0